To assess the occurrence and prognostic value of acute vasodilator response (AVR) in paediatric vs. adult pulmonary arterial hypertension, and idiopathic/hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH/HPAH) vs. pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) using three different response criteria.Methods and results
Ninety-nine PAH patients underwent AVR testing (37 children, 62 adults; 70 iPAH/HPAH, 29 PAH-CHD). Three response criteria from clinical practice were used to define AVR. The number of responders was evaluated separately in subgroups based on age, diagnosis, and presence of a non-restrictive post-tricuspid shunt. Numbers of responders varied importantly using the different criteria but were always higher in iPAH/HPAH, compared with PAH-CHD. The number of responders did not differ between paediatric and adult iPAH/HPAH. No responders were identified in patients with a post-tricuspid shunt. Acute vasodilator response was associated with improved survival using all three criteria. Low baseline mean right atrial pressure (mRAP) was associated with improved survival in adults (P< 0.001). High baseline mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP)/mean systemic arterial pressure (mSAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)/systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were associated with worse survival, statistically independent from age, diagnosis, and the presence of a post-tricuspid shunt.Conclusion
The proportion of patients with AVR highly depends on the used criteria, but did not differ between paediatric and adult iPAH/HPAH. Current response criteria are not suitable for patients with a post-tricuspid shunt. In both children and adults without post-tricuspid shunts, AVR was associated with improved survival independent of the used criteria. Nevertheless, prognostic value in the individual patient was limited. Baseline mRAP showed a good correlation with survival for adult PAH patients, but not for children. High baseline mPAP/mSAP and PVR/SVR was associated with worse prognosis independent from age, diagnosis, or the presence of a post-tricuspid shunt.