Mixed aortic valve disease: midterm outcome and predictors of adverse events

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Abstract

Aims

The aim of this article is to determine freedom from adverse events (AE) defined as symptoms, aortic valve replacement (AVR), or death in the mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD) population.

Methods and results

We reviewed patients with moderate/severe MAVD followed at Mayo Clinic from 1994–2013. Only asymptomatic patients with normal ejection fraction and trileaflet aortic valve were included. Cox proportional-hazard models and Kaplan–Meier method were used. We identified 213 patients with moderate/severe MAVD; mean age was 69 years (±11) and 67% were males. An AE endpoint was reached in 172 patients, and 69% of these AEs occurred in moderate MAVD (peak velocity of 3–3.9 m/s). Mean follow-up was 10.1 ± 3 years, and mean time to AE was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. A mechanical prosthesis was implanted in 71/151 (47%), and 54/151 (36%) had concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aorta replacement during AVR. Early surgical mortality was 0.7%. Freedom from AE endpoint was 42% [confidence interval (CI) 39–45%] and 30% (CI 27–33%) at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Predictors of AE were peak aortic velocity [hazard ratio (HR) 2.73; CI 1.97–2.84, P < 0.0001] for every 1 m/s difference and having severe stenosis or severe regurgitation at presentation (HR 2.58; CI 2.01–4.44, P = 0.001).

Conclusion

Moderate MAVD had high rate of AEs comparable to severe isolated aortic stenosis and should be followed as such. Patients with severe MAVD should be evaluated at least every 6 months because half of them will become symptomatic and require AVR within 1 year.

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