Concomitant mitral annular calcification and severe aortic stenosis: prevalence, characteristics and outcome following transcatheter aortic valve replacement

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Calcified aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) have certain similar etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms. MAC is frequently encountered in pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) imaging of patients that undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but its prognostic implications for these patients have not been thoroughly investigated. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of MAC among patients with severe AS and to assess the clinical implications of MAC on these patients during and following TAVR.

Methods and results

Consecutive patients that underwent TAVR were compared according to the existence of MAC and its severity in pre-TAVR CT scans. From the entire cohort of 761 patients, 49.3% had MAC, and 50.7% did not have MAC. Mild MAC was present in 231 patients (30.4%), moderate MAC in 72 patients (9.5%), and severe MAC in 72 patients (9.5%). Thirty-day mortality and major complications were similar between patients with and without MAC. In a multivariable survival analysis, severe MAC was found to be an independent strong predictor of overall mortality following TAVR (all-cause mortality: hazards ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–3.07, P = 0.004; cardiovascular mortality: HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.19–4.66; P = 0.01). Severe MAC was also found to be an independent strong predictor of new permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after TAVR (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.08–7.47; P = 0.03).


Half of the patients with severe AS evaluated for TAVR were found to have MAC. Severe MAC is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and with conduction abnormalities following TAVR and should be included in future risk stratification models for TAVR.

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