Lung recruitment manoeuvres do not cause haemodynamic instability or oxidative stress but improve oxygenation and lung mechanics in a newborn animal model: An observational study

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BACKGROUNDLung recruitment manoeuvres in neonates during anaesthesia are not performed routinely due to concerns about causing barotrauma, haemodynamic instability and oxidative stress.OBJECTIVETo assess the influence of recruitment manoeuvres and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on haemodynamics, oxidative stress, oxygenation and lung mechanics.DESIGNA prospective experimental study.SETTINGExperimental Unit, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.ANIMALSEight newborn piglets (<48 h) with healthy lungs under general anaesthesia.INTERVENTIONSThe recruitment manoeuvres in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) were performed along with a constant driving pressure of 15 cmH2O. After the recruitment manoeuvres, PEEP was reduced in a stepwise fashion to find the maximal dynamic compliance step (maxCDyn-PEEP). Blood oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total glutathione, oxidised glutathione, reduced glutathione and activity of glutathione peroxidase) were analysed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESHaemodynamic parameters, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (paO2), tidal volume (Vt), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured.RESULTSThe recruitment manoeuvres did not induce barotrauma. Haemodynamic instability was not detected either in the maximum pressure step (overdistension step 5) or during the entire process. No substantial differences were observed in blood oxidative stress parameters analysed as compared with their baseline values (with 0 PEEP) or the values obtained 180 min after the onset of the recruitment manoeuvres (optimal PEEP). Significant maximal values were achieved in step 14 with an increase in paO2 (32.43 ± 8.48 vs. 40.39 ± 15.66 kPa; P = 0.037), Vt (47.75 ± 13.59 vs. 73.87 ± 13.56 ml; P = 0.006) and Cdyn (2.50 ± 0.64 vs. 4.75 ± 0.88 ml cmH2O−1; P < 0.001). Maximal dynamic compliance step (maxCdyn-PEEP) was 2 cmH2O.CONCLUSIONRecruitment manoeuvres in PCV with a constant driving pressure are a well tolerated open-lung strategy in a healthy-lung neonatal animal model under general anaesthesia. The recruitment manoeuvres improve oxygenation parameters and lung mechanics and do not cause barotrauma, haemodynamic instability or oxidative stress.

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