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In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescent females and young women in central Brazil, 296 subjects attending two public health services were evaluated. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection, as determined using polymerase chain reaction, was 19.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-24.7). In multivariate analysis, young age (odds ratio [OR]adjusted 2.32, 95%CI 1.1-4.8, p<0.05) and having 2-3 (ORadjusted 3.41, 95%CI 1.6-6.3, p<0.05) or ≥4 sexual partners in life (ORadjusted 3.10, 95%CI 1.1-6.3, p<0.05) were factors significantly associated with chlamydial infection. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was high in the studied population and risk factors were related to age and sexual behavior.