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Bordetella pertussis-specific antibodies can be detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or multiplex immunoassays. Assays use purified or mixed antigens, and only pertussis toxin (PT) is specific for B. pertussis. The interpretation of results can be based on dual-sample or single-sample serology using one or two cut-offs. The EU Pertstrain group recommends that: (i) ELISAs and multiplex immunoassays should use purified non-detoxified PT as an antigen, that they should have a broad linear range and that they should express results quantitatively in International Units per millilitre (IU/ml); (ii) a single or dual diagnostic cut-off for single-serum serology using IgG-anti-PT between 50 and 120 IU/ml should be used, and diagnostic serology cannot be validly interpreted for one year after vaccination with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines; (iii) IgA-anti-PT should only be used with indeterminate IgG-anti-PT levels or when a second sample cannot be obtained. This group discourages using: (i) other antigens in routine diagnostics, as they are not specific; (ii) micro-agglutination, due to its lack of sensitivity; (iii) immunoblots for pertussis serodiagnosis, as results cannot be quantified; (iv) other methods, such as complement fixation or indirect immunofluorescence, due to their low sensitivity and/or specificity.