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We investigated the correlation between Japanese apricot (JA) intake and Helicobacter pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).A questionnaire was administered and serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies measured in 1358 asymptomatic adults. The subjects were divided into high-intake and low-intake groups. Histological and serological evaluation of H. pylori-related CAG was performed in 68 non-elderly volunteers.The H. pylori-negative rate did not differ significantly between the high-intake and low-intake groups. Mean antibody titers were lower in the high-intake group, but the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference in the rate of H. pylori infection on the basis of JA intake when subjects were stratified by age. Among H. pylori-positive non-elderly subjects, antibody titers were significantly lower in the high-intake group (P= 0.041). Endoscopic tissue biopsy from the 68 volunteers showed less H. pylori bacterial load and mononuclear infiltration irrespective of gastric site in the high-intake group. In the high-intake group, antral neutrophil infiltration was significantly less pronounced and corporal atrophy was less extensive. Serological evaluation using serum PG levels also confirmed these histopathological data.Our findings strongly indicate a preventive effect of JA intake on CAG by inhibiting H. pylori infection and reducing active mucosal inflammation.