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This study examined the association between magnesium intake and type II diabetes risk among Japanese adults. Participants were 25 872 men and 33 919 women aged 45–75 years who had no history of diabetes. Magnesium intake was ascertained using a 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratio of self-reported physician-diagnosed type II diabetes over 5 years was estimated using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1114 new cases of type II diabetes were self-reported. Magnesium intake was not significantly associated with type II diabetes in either men or women. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of type II diabetes for the highest versus lowest quintile of magnesium intake were 0.86 (0.63–1.16) and 0.92 (0.66–1.28) for men and women, respectively. Although a small effect cannot be excluded in men, magnesium intake may not be appreciably associated with risk of type II diabetes for Japanese adults.