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Previous studies relating increased serum levels of folate and fat-soluble vitamins to prostate cancer risk have variously shown null associations or to either decrease or increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Prospective studies of serum folate levels have been reported to show a null association and increased serum levels to either decrease or increase the risk of subsequently developing prostate cancer. Similarly, serum β-carotene and lycopene levels have either been reported to be inversely correlated or not associated with prostate cancer risk. Using a prospective nested case-control study design, which minimized the possibility of disease effects on serum-vitamin concentrations, we report null associations for serum concentrations of folate, lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E, and subsequent development of prostate cancer.