The accuracy of the Goldberg method for classifying misreporters of energy intake on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recalls: comparison with doubly labeled water


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Abstract

Background/Objectives:Adults often misreport dietary intake; the magnitude varies by the methods used to assess diet and classify participants. The objective was to quantify the accuracy of the Goldberg method for categorizing misreporters on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two 24-h recalls (24HRs).Subjects/Methods:We compared the Goldberg method, which uses an equation to predict total energy expenditure (TEE), with a criterion method that uses doubly labeled water (DLW), in a study of 451 men and women. Underreporting was classified using recommended cut points and calculated values. Sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Predictive models of underreporting were contrasted for the Goldberg and DLW methods.Results:AUCs were 0.974 and 0.972 on the FFQ, and 0.961 and 0.938 on the 24HR for men and women, respectively. The sensitivity of the Goldberg method was higher for the FFQ (92%) than the 24HR (50%); specificity was higher for the 24HR (99%) than the FFQ (88%); PPV was high for the 24HR (92%) and FFQ (88%). Simulation studies indicate attenuation in odds ratio estimates and reduction of power in predictive models.Conclusions:Although use of the Goldberg method may lead to bias and reduction in power in predictive models of underreporting, the method has high predictive value for both the FFQ and the 24HR. Thus, in the absence of objective measures of TEE or physical activity, the Goldberg method is a reasonable approach to characterize underreporting.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) 66, 569-576; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.198; published online 30 November 2011

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