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To evaluate the relation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and neurodevelopment in the offsprings of gestational diabetic mothers (ODMs).A prospective cohort study was performed. The offspring of 63 pregnant women (23 controls, 21 diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 19 insulin-treated GDM) were recruited. Maternal and venous cord plasma DHA percentages were analyzed. Skin temperature and activity in children were recorded for 72 h at 3 and 6 months of life. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II (BSID II) at 6 and 12 months of age.Cord plasma DHA percentage was significantly lower in the ODMs compared with that in the controls (Control 6.43 [5.04–7.82]a; GDM+diet 5.65 [4.44–6.86]ab; GDM+insulin 5.53 [4.45–6.61]b). Both mental (Control 102.71 [97.61–107.81]a; GDM+diet 100.39 [91.43–109.35]a; GDM+insulin 93.94 [88.31–99.57]b) and psychomotor (Control 91.52 [81.82–101.22]a; GDM+diet 81.67 [73.95–89.39]b; GDM+insulin 81.89 [71.96–91.85]b) scores evaluated by the BSID II were significantly lower at 6 months in ODMs, even after adjusting for confounding factors such as breastfeeding, maternal educational level and gender. Cord plasma DHA percentage correlated with the psychomotor score from BSID II (r = 0.27; P = 0.049) and with the intra-daily variability in activity (r = - 0.24; P = 0.043) at 6 months. Maternal DHA was correlated with several sleep rhythm maturation parameters at 6 months.Lower DHA levels in cord plasma of ODMs could affect their neurodevelopment. Maternal DHA status was also associated with higher values in the sleep rhythm maturation parameters of children.