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The aim of this study was to verify the agreement between body fat percentage (%BF) values evaluated by air displacement plethysmograph (ADP) and body adiposity index (BAI) in adults with Down's syndrome (DS).Forty-five adults with DS volunteered to participate in this study (19 women; age 28.7 ± 8.5 years and 26 men; age 29.1 ± 8.8 years). The %BF was measured by ADP (%BFADP) and estimated by anthropometric measures [%BF = (hip circumference/height)1.5 - 18] (%BFBAI). Agreement between methods was evaluated by paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis.Although high correlation coefficients were found between %BFADP and %BFBAI for women (r = 0.78, P < 0.05) and men (r = 0.87, P < 0.05), significant differences were observed between methods for both sexes (38.9 ± 8.9 vs 42.5 ± 8.5% for women, and 25.8 ± 11.3 vs 32.6 ± 5.4% for men in %BFADP and %BFBAI, respectively). Moreover, Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean error estimate was +3.6 (95%CI, - 7.59 to 14.79) in women and +6.74 (95%CI, - 7.25 to 20.72) in men.The results indicate that BAI seems to be a limited method to evaluate %BF in women and in men with DS.