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Thrombus formation leading to ischaemic stroke is a major concern after transcathether occlusion of interatrial communications. The aim of our study was to verify if postprocedural transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) might improve timely detection and management of thrombus formation.We studied 65 patients with patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect who received an atrial septal closure device. Transoesophageal echocardiography was used to guide the procedure, and was repeated <1 h after the end of the procedure, at 30 day and 6 month follow-up visits. Transoesophageal echocardiography <1 h after procedure revealed a left-sided thrombus attached to the device in three patients. All cases were successfully treated by thrombolytic therapy with full-dose tenecteplase (0.53 mg/kg in 5–10 s) with disappearance of thrombus in 15–60 min. No cerebrovascular event was recorded during a follow-up of 311 ± 235 days.Thrombus formation on interatrial closure devices can occur soon after device implantation and can be timely detected by postprocedural TEE.