Clinical and prognostic characteristics associated with age and gender in acute myocardial infarction: A multihospital perspective in the Murcia region of Spain

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Age and female gender have been associated with poor prognosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Data currently available about the prognostic significance of gender in AMI might well have led to inappropriate/incomplete conclusions. A multicenter, prospective study on 1239 patients with AMI was conducted. Clinical characteristics, complications during the acute phase and one-year follow-up were monitored. Women constituted 24.1% of all patients. Female patients were older with more prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and previous congestive heart failure. Compared with men, the following complications were more frequently found in women: heart failure, 43% vs. 22% (p < 0.001); reinfarction, 5% vs. 2% (p < 0.05); use of pacemaker, 7% vs. 4% (p < 0.05). Women had higher mortality: early, during the first 24 hours post-admission, 10.7 vs. 3.1%; in-hospital, 23% vs. 8.1%; and 1-year, 33.7% vs. 16% (p < 0.001 for all the 3 cases of mortality). In the age-groups considered (<65, 65–74, and ≥ 75 years), 1-year mortality increased exponentially with ageing in men: 7.8%, 21.3%, and 38.9%, whereas in women the figures were: 15.3%, 41.5%, and 38.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that, among other variables, age and female gender had independent prognostic value for in-hospital mortality whereas gender lost its prognostic significancy for 1-year mortality. Multivariate analysis restricted to those patients aged over 75 years showed that age but not gender had independent prognostic value. In conclusion, age and female sex have independent prognostic value for predicting mortality in patients with AMI. Mortality increases exponentially with ageing in men whereas it stabilises in the case of women over 65 years. Female gender loses its independent value for predicting mortality in patients over 75 years.

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