1BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK2Preventative Health, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Germany4Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Institute of Medicine, Department of Emergency and Cardiovascular medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden5Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands6AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden7Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands8Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands9Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden10Department of Cardiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway11Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden
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AimsTo examine the relationship between baseline intermittent claudication and outcomes in patients enrolled in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure trial (CORONA). Intermittent claudication is an independent predictor of worse outcome in coronary heart disease, but its prognostic importance in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Patients aged ≥60 years with NYHA class II-IV, low ejection fraction HF of ischaemic aetiology were enrolled in CORONA. Rosuvastatin did not reduce the primary outcome or all-cause mortality.Methods and resultsTo determine whether intermittent claudication was an independent predictor of clinical outcomes, a three-step multivariable model was built: (i) demographic/clinical variables, (ii) biochemical measures added, (iii) high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic-peptide added. Of the 5011 patients, 637 (12.7%) had intermittent claudication at baseline. Patients with intermittent claudication were more likely to be male (83 vs. 75%), be a current smoker (19 vs. 9%), and have diabetes mellitus (36 vs. 29%) relative to those without intermittent claudication. Over a median 33-month follow-up, 2168 patients died or were hospitalized for HF. Patients with intermittent claudication had an increased risk of death (any cause) (adjusted hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.19–1.56, P < 0.0001), death from worsening HF (1.35, 1.03–1.77, P = 0.028), sudden death (1.24, 1.00–1.54, P = 0.05), and risk of non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction (time to first event 1.67, 1.24–2.27, P < 0.001). In the full multivariable model, intermittent claudication remained an independent predictor of most outcomes evaluated.ConclusionIntermittent claudication is a relatively common symptom in ischaemic HF and an independent predictor of worse outcome.Clinical Trial Registration Information: NCT00206310—http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00206310?term=corona&rank=2.