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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is increasingly recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology of HFPEF over the past two decades, with the publication of numerous population-based epidemiological studies, large heart failure registries, and randomized clinical trials. These recent studies have provided detailed characterization of larger numbers of patients with HFPEF than ever before. This review summarizes the state of current knowledge with regards to the disease burden, patient characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of HFPEF. Despite the wealth of available data, substantive gaps in knowledge were identified. These gaps represent opportunities for further research in HFPEF, a syndrome that is clearly a rising societal burden and that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality.