CONSENSUS to EMPHASIS: the overwhelming evidence which makes blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system the cornerstone of therapy for systolic heart failure

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We will shortly celebrate the 25th anniversary of the publication of the Co-operative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), a clinical trial which revolutionized the treatment of heart failure and highlighted the importance of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of heart failure (Figure 1). In this article I will give a brief, historical overview of this exciting quarter-century of discovery related to the RAAS. My focus is on the treatment of heart failure in patients with a low left ventricular ejection fraction.

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