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As experimental studies suggest that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is cardioprotective after myocardial infarction (MI), this study sought to investigate relationships between circulating levels of HGF and left ventricular (LV) remodelling in patients after acute MI.This prospective multicentre study included 246 patients with a first anterior Q-wave MI. Serial echocardiographic studies were performed at hospital discharge and 3 and 12 months after MI; quantitative analysis was performed at a core echocardiography laboratory. Blood samples to measure HGF, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-reactive protein were obtained at discharge and at the 1, 3, and 12 month follow-up visits. Plasma HGF levels were high at baseline, decreased at 1 month, and remained stable thereafter. In the post-MI period (at 3 and 12 months), HGF levels were positively associated with LV volumes, wall motion systolic index, E/Ea, and BNP; and negatively with LV ejection fraction. High HGF levels were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Multivariate analysis showed that both BNP (P < 0.0001) and C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001) were independently associated with HGF levels at 3 and 12 months. Patients who died or were rehospitalized for heart failure during follow-up had higher HGF levels at 1 month (P = 0.0006), 3 months (P = 0.018), and 1 year (P = 0.006) after MI.Circulating HGF levels correlate with all markers of LV remodelling after MI and are associated with rehospitalization for heart failure.