The efficacy and safety of lixivaptan in outpatients with heart failure and volume overload: results of a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

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AimsVolume overload is the dominant feature of decompensated heart failure (HF) and it often results in adverse clinical outcomes. Vasopressin receptor antagonists such as lixivaptan may provide effective volume unloading. This study assessed weight loss after 1 day and 8 weeks of treatment with lixivaptan in outpatients with HF and volume overload.Methods and resultsThis phase II, 8-week, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized participants (2:1) to receive lixivaptan 100 mg or placebo once daily (in addition to standard HF therapy). Body weight and cardiovascular assessments were made at baseline, Day 1 (not cardiovascular), Weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8, and 7 days post-treatment. The Trail-making Test, part B (TMT-B) and the Medical Outcomes Survey 6-item cognitive function scale (MOS-6) were assessed at baseline and Week 4. The study randomized 170 participants (lixivaptan, n = 111; placebo, n = 59). Most (97.1%) were receiving pharmacological therapy for HF at baseline. Demographic characteristics were generally similar between the two groups. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline to Day 1 with lixivaptan vs. placebo (least-square mean change ± standard error: − 0.38 ± 0.08 kg vs. +0.13 ± 0.11 kg; P < 0.001) and at Weeks 1, 2, and 4 (P < 0.01). Cardiovascular changes were generally similar in both groups, though orthopnoea and dyspnoea improved in the lixivaptan group vs. placebo. The TMT-B and MOS-6 showed no significant differences between groups. Lixivaptan was well tolerated—thirst and polyuria occurred more frequently vs. placebo.ConclusionsIn outpatients with HF and volume overload, lixivaptan 100 mg once daily, when added to standard therapy, reduced body weight, improved dyspnoea and orthopnoea, and was well tolerated.Trial registration: NCT01055912

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