Association between cardiovascular vs. non-cardiovascular co-morbidities and outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction


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Abstract

AimsThe prevalence of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular co-morbidities and their relative importance for outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) remain poorly characterized. This study aimed to investigate this.Methods and resultsThe Karolinska–Rennes (KaRen) Study was a multinational prospective observational study designed to characterize HFPEF. Inclusion required acute HF, defined by the Framingham criteria, LVEF ≥45%, and NT-pro-BNP ≥300 ng/L or BNP ≥100 ng/L. Detailed clinical data were collected at baseline and patients were followed prospectively for 18 months. Predictors of the primary (HF hospitalization or all-cause mortality) and secondary (all-cause mortality) outcomes were assessed with multivariable Cox regression. A total of 539 patients [56% women; median (interquartile range) age 79 (72–84) years; NT-pro-BNP/BNP 2448 (1290–4790)/429 (229–805) ng/L] were included. Known history of HF was present in 40%. Co-morbidities included hypertension (78%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (65%), anaemia (51%), renal dysfunction (46%), CAD (33%), diabetes (30%), lung disease (25%), and cancer (16%). The primary outcome occurred in 268 patients [50%; 106 deaths (20%) and 162 HF hospitalizations (30%)]. Important independent predictors of the primary and/or secondary outcomes were age, history of non-cardiovascular syncope, valve disease, anaemia, lower sodium, and higher potassium, but no cardiovascular co-morbidities. Renin–angiotensin system antagonist and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist use predicted improved prognosis.ConclusionHFPEF was associated with higher age, female gender, hypertension, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and numerous non-cardiovascular co-morbidities. Prognosis was determined by non-cardiovascular co-morbidities, but use of conventional heart failure medications may still be associated with improved outcomes.

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