A specifically designed nanoconstruct associates, internalizes, traffics in cardiovascular cells, and accumulates in failing myocardium: a new strategy for heart failure diagnostics and therapeutics


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Abstract

AimsOngoing inflammation and endothelial dysfunction occurs within the local microenvironment of heart failure, creating an appropriate scenario for successful use and delivery of nanovectors. This study sought to investigate whether cardiovascular cells associate, internalize, and traffic a nanoplatform called mesoporous silicon vector (MSV), and determine its intravenous accumulation in cardiac tissue in a murine model of heart failure.Methods and resultsIn vitro cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of MSVs was examined by scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and flow cytometry in cardiac myocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. The MSVs were internalized within the first hours, and trafficked to perinuclear regions in all the cell lines. Cytotoxicity was investigated by annexin V and cell cycle assays. No significant evidence of toxicity was found. In vivo intravenous cardiac accumulation of MSVs was examined by high content fluorescence and confocal microscopy, with results showing increased accumulation of particles in failing hearts compared with normal hearts. Similar to observations in vitro, MSVs were able to associate, internalize, and traffic to the perinuclear region of cardiomyocytes in vivo.ConclusionsResults show that MSVs associate, internalize, and traffic in cardiovascular cells without any significant toxicity. Furthermore, MSVs accumulate in failing myocardium after intravenous administration, reaching intracellular regions of the cardiomyocytes. These findings represent a novel avenue to develop nanotechnology-based therapeutics and diagnostics in heart failure.

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