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The aim of this study was to apply the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) method in a randomised controlled study, comparing treatment with fluoride varnish and professional tooth cleaning for remineralisation of white spot lesions in caries-active adolescents. In the fluoride varnish group (n = 13; 32 lesions), professional tooth-cleaning was followed by application of fluoride varnish at the beginning of the study, after 1 wk, and then once every 6 wk for 6 months. The other group (n = 18; 30 lesions) underwent professional tooth-cleaning once every 6 wk for 6 months. Enamel fluorescence was measured at baseline and at each visit. In the fluoride varnish group there was a significant change over time (baseline: 6 months) for both lesion area: and average change in fluorescence (decreased lesion area and increased fluorescence radiance). The corresponding changes in the professional tooth-cleaning group were not significant. There was a significant difference in average change in fluorescence between the two test groups. For lesion area, there was no significant difference, but a tendency towards a difference between the test groups. It was concluded that (a) the QLF method is a sensitive method, suitable for longitudinal quantification of incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces; and (b) that repeated fluoride applications had a favourable effect on the remineralisation of white spot lesions as measured after 6 months.