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Three antiseptic (chlorhexidine, Olaflur, Octenisept) and one putative antiadhesive (chitosan) agent were investigated for their effect on viable planktonic and attached Streptococcus sanguinis cells. The bacterial pretreatment with each chemotherapeutic was performed in two steps: (i) After the exposure of planktonic streptococci to the antiseptics, the cells were suspended in human sterile saliva and allowed to attach to human enamel for 60 min; (ii) After 60 min in the flow chamber system, initially attached streptococci were treated with these agents. The microbial viability was monitored by the percentage of vital streptococci determined by fluorescence microscopy and cell reproduction. In comparison with the negative control NaCl, the non-bactericidal chitosan derivative showed distinctive antiadhesive properties. For both treatment procedures, the efficacy of the antiseptics in reducing the viability of planktonic and attached streptococci was Octenisept > Olaflur > chlorhexidine > saline > chitosan. Further studies appear warranted to develop new antiplaque/antibiofilm strategies involving highly efficient bactericidals with antiadhesive formulations.