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In six monkeys, 160 root canals were inoculated with a combination of four bacterial strains belonging to species Streptococcus milleri, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Prevotella oralis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. In two other monkeys, 24 root canals were inoculated with a five-strain combination consisting of these strains and a strain of Enterococcus faecalis. All strains were previously isolated from an infected monkey root canal. After 8–12 months, survival of the strains was recorded bacteriologically, and the reaction in the periapical region was radiographed. From 180 of 184 root canals, one or more of the bacterial strains were reisolated. The two facultative strains were more frequently reisolated than the anaerobic strains. Apical periodontitis was registered in the periapical region of more than 96% of root canals with reisolated bacteria but in none of those without reisolated bacteria. Endodontic treatment was carried out in two sessions with an interval of 14 d without interappointment dressings, and the effect was evaluated bacteriologically before and after each treatment. The chemo-mechanical treatment reduced significantly the number of strains and bacterial cells. The facultative bacteria were more resistant to the treatment than the anaerobic bacteria. The five-strain combination had a higher survival rate than the four-strain combination.