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The aim of this study was to compare the bonding efficacy of an all-in-one adhesive with that of a self-etching primer system by measuring microleakage after thermocycling and the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to enamel and dentin. Circular class V cavities along cement–enamel junctions were prepared in 20 extracted human premolars. Each 10 teeth were bonded with either AD Bond (AD) or Clearfil SE Bond (SE), and filled with a resin composite (Charisma). After thermocycling and staining with 0.5% basic fuchsin, the microleakage at the coronal and apical walls was evaluated using longitudinal sections. In addition 20 premolars were used to measure μTBS at 24 h after bonding for these adhesives to enamel and dentin that corresponded to the coronal and apical walls of the class V cavities. AD showed more microleakage than SE in the coronal walls, but there was less microleakage in the apical walls and no difference in apical leakage between the two adhesives. μTBS (SD) in MPa to enamel and dentin were 25.2 (7.3) and 68.3 (9.4) for AD, and 35.8 (7.4) and 76.4 (7.8) for SE, respectively. AD gave a lower μTBS to enamel than did SE. The results suggested that the poor adaptation at the coronal wall in AD might be caused by the lower bond strength to enamel.