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This study investigated the effects of leached components from a resin-based dental composite (Z-100) and bisphenol A (BPA) on female mouse fertility. Leached components or BPA (5, 25 and 100 μg kg−1) were administered intragastrically daily to the test and distilled water to the control groups for 28 d. Female mice were then mated with sexually mature untreated males and their fertility was assessed. The results revealed a significant reduction in the number of pregnancies – 54.5% vs. 100% (control) – in mice treated with the leached components from the dental composite, which also showed an increase of 142% in relative ovary weights. Exposure to 25 and 100 μg kg−1 BPA resulted in significant increases in the total number of resorptions out of the total number of implantations and significant increases in relative uterine weights. Relative ovarian weights were significantly increased at the highest dose. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that tri-(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (TEG-DMA) was the major leached component (total: 5945 μg ml−1) from the composite, followed by bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) (total: 2097 μg ml−1) and BPA (total: 78 μg ml−1). The results suggest that leached components from the dental composite used and commercially purchased BPA have adverse effects on the fertility and reproductive system of female mice.