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Root resorption after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) treatment was found in anchored teeth but has not been studied on non-anchored incisors. This study evaluated root resorption, root tipping, and root proximity of maxillary incisors after RPE treatment. Fourteen cats were divided into treated (n = 10) and untreated (n = 4) groups. The RPE treatment consisted of active, retention, and relapse phases, lasting 25, 60 and 60 d, respectively. Standardized occlusal radiographs were taken to measure tipping and root proximity before and after each treatment phase. Maxillary incisors were analysed histologically by fluorescent microscopy for root resorption. Data was analysed statistically with ANOVA with repeated measures, t-test and Pearson's coefficient of correlation. Root resorption was confined to the first incisors and was 750-fold greater in the treated vs. the control group. Root tipping and root proximity were significantly greater (2.5- and 17-fold, respectively) in the first than in the second maxillary incisor and highly correlated with root resorption (r = −0.927 and 0.723, respectively). This suggests a cause (tipping and root proximity) and effect (root resorption) relationship. Data suggest that first maxillary incisor susceptibility to root resorption during RPE is associated with severe tipping and root proximity.