In vitro biomechanical analysis of torque capabilities of various 0.018″ lingual bracket–wire systems: total torque play and slot size

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SummaryObjectives:To determine the total torque play of various rectangular titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA)/stainless steel (SS) wires in various 0.018″ upper incisor lingual brackets and slot size measurements.Methods:TMA (0.0175″ × 0.0175″, 0.0170″ × 0.025″, 0.0182″ × 0.0182″, 0.0182″ × 0.025″) and SS wires (0.016″ × 0.022″, 0.016″ × 0.024″, 0.018″ × 0.025″) were twisted in standard (Hiro, Incognito™, Joy®, Kurz 7th generation, STb™: fixation with elastic modules) and self-ligating brackets (Evolution SLT®, In-Ovation® L MTM: closed ligation mechanism) from −20 degrees to +20 degrees with a custom-made machine. The total torque play was calculated by extrapolating the linear portion of the twist/moment curves to the x-axis and adding the absolute negative and positive angle values at the intercepts. The bracket slot height was measured before and after the experiments with a series of pin gauges with round profile.Results:Brackets in ascending order for total torque play with the most slot-filling wire TMA 0.0182″ × 0.025″: Evolution SLT® (0 degree ± 0 degree), Incognito™ (2.2 degrees ±1.1 degrees), Hiro (5.1 degrees ±3.0 degrees), In-Ovation® L MTM (6.3 degrees ±2.2 degrees), STb™ (6.6 degrees ±1.8 degrees), Kurz 7th generation (7.1 degrees ±0.8 degrees), and Joy® (12.0 degrees ±0.8 degrees). Wires in ascending order for total torque play with the most precise slot Incognito™: TMA 0.0182″ × 0.025″ (2.2 degrees ±1.1 degrees), TMA 0.0182″ × 0.0182″ (2.4 degrees ±0.9 degrees), SS 0.018″ × 0.025″ (5.5 degrees ±1.0 degrees), TMA 0.0170″ × 0.025″ (9.4 degrees ±1.8 degrees), TMA 0.0175″ × 0.0175″ (13.0 degrees ±1.5 degrees), SS 0.016″ × 0.024″ (16.1 degrees ±1.4 degrees), SS 0.016″ × 0.022″ (17.8 degrees ±1.0 degrees); differences between some of the experimental groups were not statistically significant. Bracket slot dimensions in ascending order: Evolution SLT® (less than 0.452mm), Incognito™ (0.460mm ±0.002mm), In-Ovation® L MTM (0.469mm ±0.001mm), Hiro (0.469mm ±0.010mm), STb™ (0.471mm ±0.002mm), Kurz 7th generation (0.473mm ±0.002mm), and Joy® (greater than 0.498mm).Limitations:The applied method must be questioned when used with brackets with incomplete slot walls (Evolution SLT®). Slot measurement with pin gauges may not register bracket wing deformation.Conclusions:All brackets showed a differing slot size from the nominal 0.018″ (0.457mm). Incognito™ presented the most precise and Joy® the widest slot. The main wires for the retraction phase SS 0.016″ × 0.022″/SS 0.016″ × 0.024″ showed poor torque control. Among the finishing TMA wires, TMA 0.0175″ × 0.0175″ exhibited the highest and TMA 0.0182″ × 0.0182″/TMA 0.0182″ × 0.025″ the smallest torque play.Significance:The manufacturers could profit from this investigation towards optimization of the dimensional precision of their products. The orthodontist must be aware of the torque play of the wire–bracket combinations to be able to plan and individualize the appliance by third order customization.

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