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This study is a construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and military context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modeled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the Five Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) (Hendricks, Hofstee, & de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the Single-Item Measures of Personality (SIMP) (Woods & Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ – 41 items and 7 aspects – showed good internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only nonconvergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely because of the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.