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This study investigates the equivalent factorial structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in clinical and nonclinical Jordanian populations, using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The 53-item checklist was administered to 647 nonclinical participants and 315 clinical participants. Eight factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for the nonclinical sample, and six factors emerged for the clinical sample. When tested by parallel analysis (PA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the results reflected a unidimensional factorial structure in both samples. Furthermore, multigroup CFA showed invariance between clinical and nonclinical unidimensional models, which lends further support to the evidence of the unidimensionality of the BSI. The study suggests that the BSI is a potentially useful measure of general psychological distress in clinical and nonclinical population. Ideas for further research are recommended.