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The purpose of this study was to compare moving-table three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE MRA), using 1.0-mol gadobutrol, with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a. DSA) for evaluation of pelvic and peripheral arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A total of 203 patients were examined in a prospective, multi-centre study at 1.0/1.5 T. Ten vessel segments of one leg were evaluated on-site and by three independent blinded reviewers off-site. One hundred eighty-two patients were evaluable in blinded reading. For pelvis and thigh, there was statistically significant diagnostic agreement between CE MRA and i.a. DSA on-site (94%) and off-site (86-88%). Overall, for detection of clinically significant stenoses, 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity were achieved in on-site evaluation, with 71-76 and 87-93% off-site; for detection of occlusion, sensitivity and specificity on-site were 91 and 97%, with 75-82 and 94-98% off-site. Evaluation was more sensitive on-site than off-site for detection of stenoses and occlusion, whereas specificity was similar. The CE MRA with 1.0-mol gadobutrol gave results comparable to those of i.a. DSA for the larger arteries of pelvis and thigh. Results for calf arteries were compromised by spatial resolution and technical limitations.