Cross-cultural validation of the revised temperament and character inventory in the Bulgarian language

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Rationale, aims and objectivesHealth-care professions have long been considered prone to work-related stress, yet recent research in Bulgaria indicates alarmingly high levels of burnout. Cloninger's inventory is used to analyse and evaluate correlation between personality characteristics and degree of burnout syndrome manifestation among the risk categories of health-care professionals. The primary goal of this study was to test the conceptual validity and cross-cultural applicability of the revised TCI (TCI-R), developed in the United States, in a culturally, socially and economically diverse setting.MethodsLinguistic validation, test–retest studies, statistical and expert analyses were performed to assess cross-cultural applicability of the revised Cloninger's temperament and character inventory in Bulgarian, its reliability and internal consistency and construct validity.ResultsThe overall internal consistency of TCI-R and its scales as well as the interscale and test–retest correlations prove that the translated version of the questionnaire is acceptable and cross-culturally applicable for the purposes of studying organizational stress and burnout risk in health-care professionals.ConclusionsIn general the cross-cultural adaptation process, even if carried out in a rigorous way, does not always lead to the best target version and suggests it would be useful to develop new scales specific to each culture and, at the same time, to think about the trans-cultural adaptation.

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