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In the absence of a gold-standard tool to measure chronic pelvic pain (CPP), most studies on the prevalence of CPP use the NIH-chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI) questionnaire. However, its suitability and relevance for use in both sexes have not yet been evaluated, and generalized interpretation of the results is therefore questionable. Accordingly, we designed a questionnaire that discriminates between patients with and without symptoms of CPP.We undertook a study to test the discriminating capacity for chronic pelvic pain questionnaire (CPPQ)-Mohedo test for CPP among healthy and unhealthy individuals, and if this discrimination was similar for men and women. We did a matched study – 40 unhealthy men were matched by age with 40 unhealthy women – and each of those was matched with six healthy controls by age and sex (480 in total). To elaborate the questionnaire (CPPQ-Mohedo), we started with the NIH-CPSI, adapting the items referring to anatomic areas for women, changing the type of response and including various items on pelvic pain not previously recorded.The NIH-CPSI questionnaire [area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve), 0.946] was very similar to that of the CPPQ-Mohedo questionnaire (area under the ROC curve, 0.968), but the first required more items. CPPQ-Mohedo showed similar discriminant capacity between men and women. The dimensions involved (pain and quality of life) showed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.75).The CPPQ-Mohedo questionnaire presented discriminating power in men and women with symptoms of CPP. This questionnaire may be used as a screening tool to identify patients and include them in treatment programmes, as an outcome assessment tool for treatment and clinical trials, or as a tool to assess the prevalence of CPP in epidemiologic studies.