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Purpose and procedure
Evidence-based practice in action
Increased risk of asthma death with salmeterol monotherapy compared with placebo, but not with salmeterol plus inhaled corticosteroids compared with inhaled corticosteroids alone
Systematic review finds no difference between home-based and centre-based cardiac rehabilitation in terms of effect on mortality, morbidity and modifiable risk factors in patients with CHD
Hearing loss after bacterial meningitis is predicted by presenting status and young age; effectiveness of adjuvant dexamethasone or glycerol unclear
Compared with glyburide, sitagliptin associated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $169 572 per QALY and exenatide with $278 935 per QALY as second-line treatment in adult diabetics in the USA
Systematic review finds modest weight loss at 1 year but a lack of high-quality evidence to support the efficacy of programmes encouraging weight loss in older people
Early childhood home visits to high-risk families may reduce maternally perpetrated intimate partner violence
Uplifting results of tiotropium in moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2)
Study finds that the combination gabapentin plus nortriptyline reduces neuropathic pain more than either drug alone
Liraglutide for weight loss
Current evidence shows no reduction in mortality or re-infarction rate with early mobilisation after myocardial infarction
Hand hygiene and face mask use within 36 hours of index patient symptom onset reduces flu transmission to household contacts
Depression screening and management programmes with staff assistance in primary care increase response and remission rates, but programmes without staff assistance do not show benefits
Prophylactic paracetamol at the time of infant vaccination reduces the risk of fever but also reduces antibody response
Compared with low-dose losartan, high-dose losartan decreases risk of death or hospital admission for heart failure in people with heart failure who are intolerant to ACE inhibitors
Very-low-strength evidence suggests that combining ezetimibe or fibrate with statins is no more effective than high-dose statin monotherapy for reducing all-cause mortality
Adding live, reactive telephone counselling to self-help literature does not increase smoking cessation
Current evidence suggests phyto-oestrogens are safe and well tolerated by postmenopausal women, with moderately increased risk of adverse gastrointestinal effects compared with placebo
Compared with usual care, supervised exercise in primary care for people with patellofemoral syndrome does not significantly increase self-reported recovery but improves pain and function in the short term and pain in the long term
Telephone-delivered collaborative care for post-CABG depression is more effective than usual care for improving mental-health-related quality of life
Use of sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines in older people significantly increases their risk of falls
Adverse effects of treatment in randomised controlled trials are variably and inconsistently reported
Serious pathology in people presenting to primary care with acute low back pain is rare (0.9%), but high false-positive rates for some ‘red flags’ may limit their diagnostic value
Mammography reduces breast cancer mortality in women aged 39–69 years; but harms may outweigh benefits in women under 50
Prevalence of myocardial infarction in the USA has decreased over a 10–15 year period in midlife men but increased in women, with a greater decrease in cardiovascular risk in men compared to women
Generic prescribing in epilepsy