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Combined estrogen plus progestin may reduce coronary heart disease risk after 5 years of use in postmenopausal women starting treatment within 10 years of menopause
Intermittent preventive treatment of infants with mefloquine reduces risk of clinical malaria in areas of moderate malaria transmission and high resistance to sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine, but safety and tolerability issues need consideration
Pregabalin similar to lorazepam for alcohol withdrawal symptoms
Rosuvastatin is similarly effective for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women as in men
Daily self-monitoring unlikely to be cost-effective in adults with type 2 diabetes not using insulin in Canada
Insufficient evidence to recommend routine adjunctive chest physiotherapy for adults with pneumonia
Nicotine patch plus lozenge gives greatest increases in abstinence from smoking rates at 6 months compared with placebo; smaller effects seen with nicotine patch alone, bupropion or nicotine lozenges alone or combined
Combination therapy with long-acting β-agonists plus inhaled corticosteroids is no more effective than LABA monotherapy for mortality outcomes and severe exacerbations in moderate to very severe COPD and is associated with serious adverse effects
Quadrivalent HPV vaccine administered to women who became pregnant during trials did not appear to adversely affect pregnancy outcome; however, use during pregnancy is not recommended
No evidence that vaccinating health care workers prevents flu in elderly residents in long-term care facilities
Most physical tests to identify lumbar-disc herniation show poor diagnostic performance when used in isolation, but findings may not apply to primary care
Training paediatricians to follow guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis improves guideline adherence and reduces the duration of diarrhoea in young children
There is a slight increase in incident diabetes risk with the use of statins, but benefits likely outweigh any adverse effects in those with moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk
Standard medical care does not offer sufficient relief of non-specific chest pain leading to additional diagnostic testing of no clinical benefit
Extending transdermal nicotine therapy from 8 to 24 weeks increases point-prevalence abstinence at 24 but not 52 weeks
Catheter ablation treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation results in a longer time to treatment failure than anti-arrhythmic drugs and improves quality of life
Targeted, immediate antibiotics following a positive dipstick test may be the optimal management strategy
Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and the combination of orlistat with a low-fat diet lead to comparable improvements in weight and blood lipids, but LCKD more beneficial for blood pressure
The use of diuretics plus calcium channel blockers for hypertension may be associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction but not stroke compared with the combination of diuretics plus β blockers
Reliance on self-reporting underestimates pregnancy smoking rates in Scotland, with more than 2400 pregnant smokers estimated to be missed each year
Specialist visits (urologist, radiation oncologist, medical oncologist) are strongly associated with treatment received for prostate cancer in the USA
Interventions to improve secondary prevention after stroke are needed
Purpose and procedure