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Patient health literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine
Systematic reviews to evaluate causation
Meta-analysis
Telaprevir triple combination therapy, and dual peginterferon α-2a/ribavirin therapy for 24 weeks for those with rapid-early response is not inferior to 48 weeks of therapy for treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection
The use of 50% nitrous oxide improves successful intravenous access in obese and growth-limited children in an outpatient setting
Physical education combined with pedometer use is associated with better glucose tolerance among overweight/obese with impaired glucose tolerance; no benefit for education alone
Overweight and obese individuals following either commercial or primary care-led weight loss programmes achieve significant weight loss at the end of the 12-week programme, but only the commercial programmes studied had sustained effect to 1 year
For people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation rivaroxaban is non-inferior to warfarin for preventing stroke or embolism, with no difference in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding
Lung cancer screening with chest radiography has no effect on lung cancer incidence or mortality
Vitamin E and selenium do not decrease prostate cancer incidence
In people with hand osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulphate therapy for 6 months improves pain and function compared with placebo
Preterm infants receiving heel lance procedures have slightly lower pain scores and quicker time to return to baseline heart rate when held in kangaroo care by the mother than by the father
Thromboprophylaxis in medical inpatients reduces pulmonary embolism, increases the risk of major haemorrhage and does not reduce total mortality, producing questionable net clinical benefit
Cryotherapy for plantar warts more costly but no more effective than salicylic acid self-treatment
Lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy for cardiovascular risk factors are associated with improvements in erectile dysfunction
Number needed to screen to detect adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in women than in similarly aged men
Patients on three times-weekly haemodialysis have increased mortality during the long, 2-day interdialytic interval
Of people admitted within 2 h of mild/improving stroke, 31% do not receive rtPA, although many of these people have poor outcomes
Failure to detect a link between mobile phone use and brain tumours in a large Danish cohort study
Gender-based violence, perinatal mental health in women and child development
Asthma is associated with various perinatal risks, but not with preterm birth when it is actively managed during pregnancy
Purpose and procedure