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Overenthusiastic stroke risk factor modification in the over-80s
Measurement of perceptions of educational environment in evidence-based medicine
Topical antibiotic therapy is superior to systemic antibiotics for acute tympanostomy tube otorrhoea, but may not be necessary for all children
Electronic cigarettes are at least as effective as nicotine patches for smoking cessation
Cytisine is effective for smoking cessation
Omalizumab decreases exacerbations and allows a step down in daily inhaled corticosteroid dose in adults and children with moderate-to-severe asthma
Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis results in increased reoperation rates and costs without improving patient outcomes
Dual antiplatelet therapy in recurrent stroke prevention
Bariatric surgery produces greater weight loss and improvements in medical conditions than non-surgical treatment of obesity
Insufficient evidence exists to evaluate effects of blood transfusions and iron therapy for treatment of anaemia in patients with heart disease—erythropoietin agonists do not improve outcomes
The value of vitamin E as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease remains unproven despite functional improvement, due to a lack of established effect on cognition or other outcomes from RCTs
Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy provides no benefit over sham surgery in the setting of isolated degenerative medial meniscal tears without osteoarthritis
An ‘all-human’ diet decreases days of parenteral nutrition compared with formula in premature infants
Tight glycaemic control does not improve mortality or morbidity in critically ill children
No consistent evidence to date that prenatal or postnatal probiotic supplementation prevents childhood asthma and wheeze
Mailed invitations for colorectal screening are effective in increasing screening participation in uninsured adults with faecal immunochemical testing
An intensive outpatient lifestyle modification programme improves measures of glycaemia in obese youth
Brief, patient-centred risk-reduction counselling at the time of a rapid HIV test does not affect subsequent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections
Combined HPV and cytology better than cytology for protection against cervical cancer
Extensive scheduled CT and CEA follow-up are equivalent in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer that is surgically treatable with curative intent, and superior to minimal follow up
Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) is ready for prime time in the USA
Voided midstream urine culture is a good test for acute cystitis in premenopausal women
Seven days of non-invasive cardiac monitoring early postischaemic stroke or TIA increases atrial fibrillation detection rate compared with current guideline-based practice
Digoxin initiation is associated with lower risk of all-cause readmission after hospitalisation for heart failure
First trimester fetal size is inversely and modestly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood
Mediolateral episiotomy significantly reduces the risk of obstetric-associated anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in women who deliver via vacuum extraction
Migraine is a marker for risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke
In the absence of diagnosed concussion in collegiate contact sport athletes, a relationship is suggested between the effects of head impact exposure, white matter diffusivity measures and cognition
Effect of communication training on patient, family and healthcare provider outcomes
Women with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy with low viral loads can safely opt for vaginal delivery in the absence of obstetrical risk factors
Physician antibiotic prescriptions for skin infections in the outpatient setting are often unnecessarily long and include unnecessary antibiotics