Epidemiological and behavioral factors associated with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infections in humans

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Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a viral disease with high fatality rate, is endemic in many countries in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. It is transmitted to humans either by tick bite or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or livestock. Aim of the present study was to review the main epidemiological characteristics of the disease worldwide, with special attempt to show the epidemiological and behavioral factors that play a role in acquisition of the infection. It is obvious that these factors differ among countries, and the knowledge and understanding of the transmission routes in each region facilitates the implementation of proper control measures, the awareness enhancement and the prevention of the disease.

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