Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection, previously only seen in tropical regions. This changed in 2003 when the first endemically acquired LGV cases were reported in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, among predominantly HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Early diagnosis is important to prevent irreversible complications and to stop further transmission in the community. In contrast to earlier reports, approximately 25% of LGV infections are asymptomatic and form an easily missed undetected reservoir. The majority of reported infections in MSM are found in the anorectal canal and not urogenital, which leaves the mode of transmission within the MSM network unclear. Given the increasing trend, the LGV endemic is clearly not under control. Therefore directed screening must be intensified.