Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

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Abstract

Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is currently associated with survival rates as high as 70%. However, many events still occur, side effects are significant, and late effects occur and can even be life-threatening. Thus, the treatment of pediatric AML still needs further improvement. While most study groups agree on several principles of AML treatment, many unanswered questions and even controversies remain, which will be the topic of this review. Relapsed AML, the most frequent event in children, will also be discussed. The controversies justify future clinical studies. Fortunately, biotechnical developments provide novel treatment targets and targeted drugs, and will enable minimal residual disease-driven tailored therapy. Moreover, a wide range of new drugs is being developed. International collaboration is required to perform randomized, or even single-arm clinical studies, in this setting of subgroup-directed therapy, and fortunately is being accomplished. Therefore, optimism is justified and the treatment of pediatric AML will continue to improve.

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