Target-organ protection in hypertensive patients has become increasingly important. This review will focus on hypertensive heart disease that is mainly characterized by myocardial hypertrophy and increased interstitial fibrosis. Cardiac remodeling develops as an adaptive response but actually represents a powerful independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The review will begin with a brief discussion on the complex pathophysiology of hypertensive cardiac remodeling and its clinical consequences. The effects of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic antihypertensive treatments on the development and progression of hypertensive heart disease are presented. Finally, the impact of the regression of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis on cardiac function and cardiovascular risk are discussed.