While medication is the first line of therapy in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, patients who have symptoms refractory to medical treatment or asymptomatic patients with high resting gradients (≥30 mmHg) may require septal myectomy. Surgical septal myectomy can be performed safely, with excellent survival, relief from symptoms and low morbidity. Alcohol septal ablation is an alternative to surgical treatment, but late outcomes are uncertain. Although both methods of septal reduction relieve left ventricular outflow tract gradients and improve functional status, the need for permanent pacing appears higher with alcohol ablation compared with surgical myectomy. As our understanding of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy continues to grow, the indications for intervention will evolve. In our practice, septal myectomy remains the gold standard for treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.