Catheter-based closure of paravalvular leak

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Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a serious complication from surgical and percutaneous valve replacement procedures. The most common manifestations include congestive heart failure and hemolytic anemia, which may cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Repeat surgery for PVL closure is often complicated and carries a reduced probability of success. As such, catheter-based techniques to eliminate PVL have been developed. Percutaneous PVL closure procedures rely heavily on multimodality imaging techniques such as echocardiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography for diagnosis, technical planning and procedural guidance. Evidence demonstrates that catheter-based closure of PVL boasts high procedural success rates and favorable clinical outcomes. Given the rapidly advancing nature of this field, this review summarizes the contemporary diagnosis of PVL, common techniques used for percutaneous closure and the latest data on patient outcomes following this procedure.

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