Mouse epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes preferentially proliferated from disaggregated epidermal cell suspensions derived from newborn mouse skin in a serum-free melanocyte-proliferation medium (MDMD) and a melanoblast-proliferation medium (MDMDF) supplemented with dibutyryl adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Pure cultured primary melanoblasts and melanocytes were further cultured with MDMD/MDMDF supplemented with granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) from 14 days (keratinocyte depletion). GMCSF stimulated the number of melanoblasts/melanocytes as well as the percentage of differentiated melanocytes in keratinocyte-depleted cultures. Flow cytometry analysis showed that melanoblasts and melanocytes in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle were increased by the treatment with GMCSF. Moreover, anti-GMCSF antibody added to MDMD/MDMDF from the initiation of the primary culture (in the presence of keratinocytes) inhibited the proliferation of melanoblasts/melanocytes as well as the differentiation of melanocytes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of culture media revealed that GMCSF was secreted from keratinocytes, but not from melanocytes. These results suggest that GMCSF is one of the keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neonatal mouse epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes in culture in cooperation with cAMP elevator and bFGF.