Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by saturated fatty acid loading induces myocardial insulin-resistance in differentiated H9c2 myocytes: A novelex vivomyocardial insulin-resistance model

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Heart failure (HF) is often accompanied with metabolic disorders and insufficient energy production. Some previous studies have suggested an elevated serum free fatty acid (FA) due to chronic adrenergic stimulation induces myocardial insulin-resistance, which further impairs myocardial energy production. Because little is known about the pathogenesis of FA-induced cardiac insulin-resistance, we established an ex vivo cardiac insulin-resistant model and investigated the relationship between insulin-resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. The ex vivo insulin-resistant myocytes, which was produced by treating differentiated H9c2 myocytes with palmitate (saturated FA; 0.2 mM) for 24 h, exhibited insulin-signaling deficiency and attenuated 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake. When myocytes were pretreated with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP, a ROS scavenger; 200 μM), the insulin-signaling deficiency by palmitate was restored, whereas the attenuated 2-DG uptake was remained. In contrast to TMPyP, the pretreatment with perhexiline (a mitochondrial FA uptake inhibitor; 2 μM) restored the insulin-signaling deficiency and the attenuated 2-DG uptake by palmitate. Perhexiline restored the depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the reduced intracellular ATP by palmitate, and thereby improved the impaired GLUT4 recruitment to plasma membrane after insulin, whereas TMPyP failed to do so. These results suggested that the mitochondrial dysfunction by saturated FA loading and consequent intracellular energy shortage induced myocardial insulin-resistance in our ex vivo insulin-resistant model.

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