Glioma progression through the prism of heat shock protein mediated extracellular matrix remodeling and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

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Abstract

Glial tumor is one of the intrinsic brain tumors with high migratory and infiltrative potential. This essentially contributes to the overall poor prognosis by circumvention of conventional treatment regimen in glioma. The underlying mechanism in gliomagenesis is bestowed by two processes- Extracellular matrix (ECM) Remodeling and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Heat Shock Family of proteins (HSPs), commonly known as “molecular chaperons” are documented to be upregulated in glioma. A positive correlation also exists between elevated expression of HSPs and invasive capacity of glial tumor. HSPs overexpression leads to mutational changes in glioma, which ultimately drive cells towards EMT, ECM modification, malignancy and invasion. Differential expression of HSPs – a factor providing cytoprotection to glioma cells, also contributes towards its radioresistance /chemoresistance. Various evidences also display upregulation of EMT and ECM markers by various heat shock inducing proteins e.g. HSF-1. The aim of this review is to study in detail the role of HSPs in EMT and ECM leading to radioresistance/chemoresistance of glioma cells. The existing treatment regimen for glioma could be enhanced by targeting HSPs through immunotherapy, miRNA and exosome mediated strategies. This could be envisaged by better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying glial tumorigenesis in relation to EMT and ECM remodeling under HSPs influence. Our review might showcase fresh potential for the development of next generation therapeutics for effective glioma management.

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