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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in breast cancer cell biological processes, including proliferation and apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of their target genes. Herein, we reported that miR-630 overexpression initiates apoptosis, blocks cell cycle progression and suppresses cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, BMI1, a member of polycomb group family, was identified as a direct target of miR-630, and there was a negative correlation between the expression levels of BMI1 and miR-630 in human breast cancer samples. With a series of biology approaches, subsequently, we proved that BMI1 was a functional downstream target of miR-630 and mediated the property of miR-630-dependent inhibition of breast cancer progression. Taken together, these findings provide further evidence on the tumor-suppression function of miR-630 in breast cancer, and clarify BMI1 as a novel functional target gene of miR-630.