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RUNX2 is a key regulator of osteogenic differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. RUNX2 mutations could cause Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD; OMIM119600), which is featured by abnormal development of bone and teeth. By using microRNA array, we identified a large number of microRNAs that showed different expression between wild-type Runx2 group and mutant groups. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of mmu-miR-1963, which was downregulated in all mutant Runx2 groups, on the ameloblast differentiation of LS8 cells. qPCR and Western Blot results showed the suppressive effect of mmu-miR-1963 on ameloblast differentiation of LS8 cell line. We further confirmed Smoc2 as one direct target of mmu-miR-1963. For the first time, we showed that mmu-miR-1963 could regulate the ameloblast differentiation of LS8 by targeting Smoc2. This study suggests the suppressive role of mmu-miR-1963 on ameloblast differentiation of LS8 via directly targeting the 3'UTR of Smoc2. We also demonstrated that Smoc2 itself could promote the ameloblast differentiation of LS8 for the first time. Our results indicate a novel explanation to the enamel hypoplasia phenotype in part of CCD patients.