Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in diabetes-associated complications, including diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Recent reports showed that miR-155 downregulation promotes wound healing in diabetic rats and ameliorates endothelial injury induced by high glucose, but its role in DFU is unknown. We found that miR-155 was overexpressed in EPCs from patients with DFU and in high glucose–induced EPCs from healthy people. Reductions in cell viability, migration, tube formation and nitric oxide production, as well as increases in lactated hydrogenase, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species induced by high glucose, were enhanced by miR-155 overexpression and restrained by miR-155 inhibition. Additionally, dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated region of patched-1 (PTCH1), a receptor of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, and downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of PTCH1. qRT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that the PTCH1 was downregulated in EPCs treated with high glucose. Silencing PTCH1 by PTCH1 siRNA alleviated the protective effect of anti-miR-155 on high glucose–induced EPC dysfunction. Our results indicate that miR-155 worsened high glucose–induced EPC function by downregulating PTCH1. These findings suggest that miR-155 may be a potential therapeutic target for DFU.