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Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently discovered form of RNA. Initially, circRNAs were believed to result from errors during the process of gene transcription. However, after further investigation, scientists suggested that circRNAs are of great biological significance. CircRNAs show stability, conservation, abundance, and tissue and stage specificity. They can also function as miRNA sponges, regulate gene expression, and interact with proteins to affect cell behavior. Emerging evidence has also demonstrated that circRNAs participate or show abnormal expression in diseases, including central nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancers, indicating their marked potential in the prediction and prognosis of diseases and clinical treatment.